WinFlow is a powerful yet easy-to-use groundwater flow model. WinFlow is similar to Geraghty & Miller's popular QuickFlow model, which was developed by Jim Rumbaugh, one of the authors of QuickFlow. The most notable improvement over QuickFlow is compatibility with Microsoft Windows V3.1/95/NT. WinFlow is a true Windows program incorporating a multiple document interface (MDI).

WinFlow is an interactive, analytical model that simulates two-dimensional steady-state and transient ground-water flow. The steady-state module simulates ground-water flow in a horizontal plane using analytical functions developed by Strack (1989). The transient module uses equations developed by Theis (1935) and by Hantush and Jacob (1955) for confined and leaky aquifers, respectively. Each module uses the principle of superposition to evaluate the effects from multiple analytical functions (wells, etc.) in a uniform regional flow field.

The steady-state module simulates the effects of the following analytic elements in two-dimensional flow: wells, uniform recharge, circular recharge/discharge areas, and line sources or sinks. Any number of these elements may be added to the model, including a uniform regional hydraulic gradient. WinFlow depicts the flow field using streamlines, particle traces, and contours of hydraulic head. The streamlines are computed semi-analytically to illustrate ground-water flow directions. Particle-tracking techniques are implemented numerically to compute travel times and flow directions. Both confined and unconfined aquifers are simulated with the steady-state module.

The transient module simulates the effects of wells, circular ponds, linesinks, and a uniform regional gradient for confined and leaky aquifers. Numerical particle-tracking is also available in the transient module. The transient module computes hydraulic heads using the Theis (1935) equation for confined aquifers and the Hantush and Jacob (1955) equation for leaky aquifers.

WinFlow is simple to use and highly interactive, allowing you to create an analytical model in minutes. The software features standard Windows pulldown menus and dialogs to facilitate the model design. WinFlow is recomputed and recontoured either by selecting a menu item or by pressing a toolbar button. Streamlines and particle traces are added interactively and recomputed each time new wells or other elements are added.

WinFlow can import a Drawing Interchange Format (DXF) file (from AutoCAD for example) to use as a digitized base map. QuickFlow and ModelCad-format map files may also be imported into WinFlow. The digitized map gives the modeler a frame of reference for designing the analytical model.

WinFlow produces report-quality graphics using any Windows device driver. Output may also be exported to a wide variety of file types, including SURFER, Geosoft, Spyglass, Windows Metafiles, and AutoCAD-compatible DXF files.

- Simulates both steady-state and transient flow
- Simulates both unconfined and confined aquifers
- Simulates effects of wells, linesinks, ponds, and recharge
- Imports map files in DXF format, QuickFlow format, or ModelCad format
- Visualizes model results with water-level contour maps
- Illustrates groundwater flowpaths using streamlines and particle traces
- Simple data input
- Linesinks and ponds included in the Transient model
- Calibration targets and calculation of calibration statistics
- Each analytic element may have a title with full font selection
- Double-click an element to edit
- Click and drag to reposition elements, streamlines, or particles
- Click and drag to resize linesinks and ponds
- Multiple document interface (MDI) allows multiple models to be open at the same time
- Cut, copy, and paste elements to/from the clipboard
- Maps may be printed using any Windows device driver
- Coordinates and head are displayed as the cursor is moved
- Full context-sensitive help system (the entire manual is on-line)
- DXF file import from within WinFlow
- Common commands are available on the Toolbar
- Drag-and-drop input files into the WinFlow Window

- Digitize a base map in a CAD package such as AutoCAD.
- Export the drawing to a DXF-format file.
- Double-click on the WinFlow icon to run WinFlow.
- Load the digitized map into WinFlow.
- Specify aquifer parameters.
- Choose a solution type (steady-state or transient).
- Add analytic elements to the model (wells, ponds, etc.).
- Calculate the model and contour the results.
- Add streamlines or particle traces to define flow paths.
- Create a graphical or summary output of the results.

- Regional gradient and direction of flow
- Hydraulic conductivity
- Aquifer top elevation and bottom elevation
- Reference head

Regional gradient and direction of flow are used to superimpose a uniform groundwater flow field on the analytical model. You must define the regional gradient which has units of [L/L] (dimensionless) and the direction of flow. The direction of flow is entered in degrees with 0.0 degrees representing east, 90.0 degrees representing north, etc. You may enter a gradient of 0.0. You may want to do this if you are computing drawdowns. Note that in unconfined aquifers, the gradient is defined at the reference point and may change throughout the model as the saturated thickness (and hence the transmissivity) changes.

Hydraulic conductivity is assumed to be homogeneous throughout the infinite aquifer and has units of [L/T], e.g., ft/d. The aquifer top and bottom elevations have units of length [L], e.g., ft, and are used to compute transmissivity. In addition, the steady-state module in WinFlow allows for conversion to unconfined flow. Therefore, if the head falls below the top of the aquifer, the model becomes unconfined.

The reference head defines a point where the head is known. In the steady-state model, the reference head is always constant and never changes during simulations. The reference head may or may not be constant in the transient model, depending upon a user-selectable option. All computations are based upon the reference head which should be located as far from wells, ponds, etc., as possible. The reference head is analogous to a constant head in a numerical model.

WinFlow assumes that you are using consistent units throughout the analysis. For example, if you are using length [L] units of feet and time [T] units of days, hydraulic conductivity will be expressed in units of ft/d and pumping rates will be in units of ft3/d (not gallons per minute).

- Storage coefficient [dimensionless]
- Hantush leakage factor (denoted by L or B) [L]
- Time value to compute solution [T]

- Well locations and pumping rates
- Recharge rate
- Pond locations and recharge/discharge rates
- Linesink locations and recharge/discharge rates
- Calibration targets

Wells are defined by the coordinates of the center of the well, a pumping rate, and a well radius. The pumping rate has units of [L3/T] such as ft3/d. A positive pumping rate indicates production and a negative rate indicates injection.

Recharge is defined only for steady-state models and has units of [L/T] such as ft/d. The recharge is distributed over the entire infinite plane of the model. An ellipse defines the shape and position of the water-table mound created if there is no regional gradient. You must define the center coordinates of the ellipse, the length of the a- and b-axis of the ellipse, and the angle between the a-axis (long axis) of the ellipse and the x-axis of the model. The recharge rate should be a positive value.

Ponds are circular recharge or discharge areas. Ponds are defined in a manner similar to wells. The coordinates of the center of the pond are given along with the radius of the pond. The pond infiltration rate has units of [L/T] and is computed by dividing the total discharge rate into or out of the pond by the area of the pond. Thus, the pond infiltration/discharge rate has the same units as recharge. A positive rate indicates infiltration and negative indicates discharge from the aquifer.

Linesinks are linear recharge or discharge features. The linesink is defined by providing the coordinates of each end point and either an infiltration/discharge rate or a head. If the linesink is defined in terms of head, the model will compute a discharge rate based on the given head value (assumed to be at the center of the linesink). Linesink discharge/infiltration rates have units of [L2/T] which is computed by dividing the total discharge rate by the length of the line. Thus, the linesink rate (or strength) is a rate per unit length. The sign convention for linesinks is the same as wells; positive indicates pumping or production and negative signifies injection or infiltration.

After defining all aquifer properties and analytic elements, you run the model by selecting Calc from the main menu and Recalculate from the pull-down menu. WinFlow will the compute hydraulic head on a regular grid of points and contour the results. To illustrate groundwater flow directions and travel times, you may add any number of particle traces. Reverse particle tracking is used to compute capture zones and forward tracking to create a flow net.

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