(multiple and non-linear regression, nonparametric tests,

GLM ANOVA, multiple comparisons of means, analysis of frequency data,

correlation, descriptive statistics, etc.)

CoStat has a wide range of statistical procedures.

- Each procedure has a short description in its dialog box.
- Statistical results are sent to a text editor window (CoText), where they can be viewed, edited, printed, and saved to a file.

Here is a list of the procedures:

**ANOVA**(Description of ANOVA)- CoStat's ANOVA procedure can do ANOVAs with:
- Missing values
- Unbalanced designs
- a priori contrasts
- Covariance
- Up to 10 factors
- User-specified models

- Sums of Squares Types - CoStat can calculate Type I, Type II, and Type III sums of squares.
- Defining Models - A unique model description system makes it easy for
anyone to run standard analyses by picking the appropriate model from a
list. The system allows more advanced users to modify existing models or
create their own models in order to specify more complex or unusual models.
The system lets you easily:
- Make variations of the existing models
- Create your own new models
- Change the format of the ANOVA table
- Re-use the models with other data files

- Pre-Defined Models - CoStat comes with numerous models already defined:
- 1, 2, 3, and 4 way completely randomized
- 1, 2, and 3 way randomized blocks
- 2 and 3 way nested
- Split plot
- Split-split plot
- 2 variations of split block
- Latin square
- Lattice
- Several models with covariance

- Bartlett's Test - Before performing the ANOVA, CoStat performs Bartlett's Test for Homogeneity of Variances, one of the assumptions of ANOVA.
- Means Comparisons Tests - After performing the ANOVA, CoStat can
automatically run a means comparisons test (for example, Duncan's,
Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK), Tukey-Kramer, Tukey's HSD, or Least Significant
Difference (LSD)).

- CoStat's ANOVA procedure can do ANOVAs with:
**Compare Means**- performs SNK, Duncan's, LSD, Tukey's HSD, or the Tukey-Kramer test for multiple comparisons of means.

**Correlation**- calculates correlation coefficient; slope and Y intercept of linear regression; standard errors.

**Descriptive Statistics**- calculates n, sum, mean, standard deviation, variance, coefficient of variation, skewness, kurtosis, maximum, minimum.

**Analysis of Frequency Data**( Description of Analysis of Frequency Data)- Cross tabulation of string or numeric data.
- Calculation of expected frequency of normal, binomial, or Poisson distributions.
- Goodness of Fit Tests - Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Likelihood Ratio (G test), and Chi-square tests of goodness of fit.
- Fisher's Exact Test.
- Log-linear analysis of 3 way tables.

**Miscellaneous Tests**- Confidence Limits of a Correlation Coefficient
- Confidence Limits of a Mean
- Confidence Limits of a Regression Coefficient (Slope)
- Equality of Two Means (equal variances) (t Test)
- Equality of Two Means (unequal variances) (t test)
- Equality of Two Percentages (G test)
- Equality of Two Variances (F Test)
- Homogeneity of Correlation Coefficients
- Homogeneity of Linear Regression Slopes
- Homogeneity of Variances (Using n and Variance Data) (Bartlett's Test)
- Homogeneity of Variances (Using Raw Data) (Bartlett's Test)
- Mean±2SD - summarized data in a format that it is easy to plot in CoPlot.
- Single Observation and a Mean (t Test)

**Nonparametric Tests**( Description of Nonparametric Tests)- Percentiles - calculates nonparametric descriptive statistics: mode and percentiles.
- Rank Correlation - Kendall's and Spearman's Rank Correlation Tests are analogous to the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient.
- 2 Runs Tests - Up and Down, and Above and Below the Median
- Tied Ranks - ranks the values in a column, replaces ties with the average rank, then inserts a new column with the tied rank values.
- 1 Way, Completely Randomized ANOVA - using the Kruskal-Wallis Test.
- 1 Way, 2 Treatment, Completely Randomized ANOVA - using the Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon Two Sample Test.
- 1 Way, Randomized Blocks ANOVA - using Friedman's Method for Randomized Blocks.
- 1 Way, 2 Treatment, Randomized Blocks ANOVA - using Wilcoxon's
Signed-Ranks Test for Two Groups.

**Regression**- Polynomial regressions of any order.
- Periodic (Fourier) curve fitting.
- Multiple regression (including Backwards Elimination and All Subsets options). ( Description of Multiple Regression)
- Several types of linearizable nonlinear regressions.
- True nonlinear regressions using the Nelder and Mead Simplex Algorithm. You enter any equation. It will interatively find the best values for the unknowns. ( Description of Nonlinear Regression)
- Solve simultaneous linear equations.

**Tables**- calculates the probability associated with a given test statistic, or the reverse (the statistic associated with a given probability). The tables included are:- Chi-square distribution
- F distribution
- Normal distribution
- t distribution (2 tailed)

The procedure can also calculate the z transformation of a correlation coefficient and its inverse.

**Utilities**- Data Area - Given x and y data columns, this calculates the area under the curve.
- Data Interpolate X Y - Given x and y data columns and an x value, this interpolates values between the data points to find the corresponding y value. Or, given y, it finds x.
- Date <-> Julian Date - converts Year-Month-Date date values to/from Julian dates (1899-12-31 = day 1).
- Degrees°Min'Sec" <-> Degrees.dd - converts Degrees°Min'Sec" values to/from decimal degrees values.
- Factorials - Given an integer, n, this calculates n factorial, often written as n!.
- Functions Closest - This finds the x value where two functions are closest.
- Function Equals Y - Given a y value, this finds where the x value where a function evaluates to y. This is useful for calculating an LD50.
- Function Evaluate - This procedure evaluates an equation at a series of x values.
- Function Integrate - This procedure numerically integrates an equation.
- Function Minima - Given an x value, this procedure finds a nearby minima.
- Function Maxima - Given an x value, this procedure finds a nearby maxima.
- Permutations And Combinations - Given the number of items picked and the size of the population, this procedure calculates the number of permutations and combinations.
- Random Numbers - This will create a series of random integers in a specific range.
- Time <-> Seconds - converts Hours:Minutes:Seconds.Decimal time
values to/from seconds values.

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